Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication


In 1970 Dean Barnlund developed a transactional communication model, consisting of a multi layered feedback system.

Feedback is continues throughout the exchange. Feedback for the sender is the reply from the receiver.

Within the model there are many factors. One of the main features are cues.

Cues are broken down into Public, Private and Behavioural.

Public refers to the physical environment

Private comes form the person and can  be verbal or non verbal.

Like with most other communication models there are encoders and decoders built in

Personal filters play a part in transactional theory.

They are present in everyone. No two people ever have the same combination of filters as they are shaped by culture, personal values, beliefs and emotions.

This model is complex and relies on people understanding the codes sent out by the other.




Schramm’s Communication Model


Wilbur Schramm believe for communication to occur, there must be a sender and receiver.

The sender will encode a message via an interpreter. Likewise but in reverse, the receiver will receive a message decode by an interpreter.

This model was described in Schram’s book The Process and Effects of Communication.

The also recognised messages could be effected bu ‘Semantic Noise’.

Noise is interference which distorts the message. When the receiver decodes the message it may differ from what was sent.

Schramm also believed other factors effect both parties in the communication process.

The first is Field of Experience.

Field of Experience are the outside influences who define who we are, culture, social background, experience, personal values and beliefs.

Context of the Relationship

The manor of the relationship between the parties play’s a part. This will effect the language and context, for example the difference between close friends and business acquaintances. The linking fact is the shared interest in the subject to which the message concerns.

There are many advantages to Schramm’s below are just a couple of them

The first is that due to the circular equality of the model both parties feel equal, allowing both to freely express themselves

The second is that because of the feedback or noise that may be experienced, it is possible to gage if the massage has been received in its intended state.

The disadvantage is it is only intended for 1 sender and one receiver, not multiple users .