What Can Publishers Do To Prevent Public Concern Around The Ethics Of Virtual Reality

“Virtual reality has been coined by many as the ultimate empathy machine, enabling publishers to transport audiences to different situations and make them engage with stories like never before. But it’s possible this immersive medium can be used to encourage negative behaviour, thus having  detrimental implications on society and its values.”

On of the primary concerns regarding the world of Virtual Reality is desensitisation. This can happen when exposed to a situation on a regular basis. It has been noted in some online publications such as https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/ethical-issues.html that this may happen playing games with high levels of violence or military training, with simulated scenes which can contain killing.

This same desensitisation can be used for positive reasons. If a person has an overwhelming fear, regular exposure can help overcome it. For example a fear of flying, you can become familiar with take offs and landings whilst being aware that you feet are firmly on the ground.

In a discussion at the last Talk Local event in Birmingham the topic of VR was quite animated, we agreed on there being a place for VR and that the user will receive a more personal experience than those watching at home in HD.

The question we asked was who is responsible for viewing control. My personal belief is that it is the responsibility of the individual, or in the case of children, the parents. If the networks provide a guide to the viewing, in the way films do, or make it clear there may be explicit content.

If this information is given the responsibility is passed to the consumer, they are able to make an informed choice to watch or not to watch.

Providers of VR content need to be regulated and monitored, as much for public can have confidence.



Andrew Marr and Andrew Neil Comparison Essay

sarah atkinson

Comparison Essay

Andrew Marr and Andrew Neil


The two journalists chosen for comparison are Andrew Marr and Andrew Neil. On paper, they appear to be very similar, both Scottish political journalists who work for the BBC and have their own shows. They do however vary in their style, but have a shared aim, to inform the public and hold the people/parties/companies to account for their actions.

This essay will compare the two in both presenting style and delivery, and the way their personal lives, background and ethics influence them and the way in which they work. It will demonstrate how two broadcaster/journalists with differing styles accomplish the same outcome. They both hold to account the men and women who govern and shape all realms of the United Kingdom.

Andrew Marr is a Scottish political journalist and know hosts the Sunday morning BBC show ‘The Andrew Marr Show’ this is a current affairs programme made up of segments including a panel paper review, and a feature interview. Before working for the BBC Andrew Marr attended Cambridge, then went to work for several publications including The Scotsman and The Independent. In 2013 he had a stroke which still affects his left side, during a documentary about his stroke he explained how a nurse built a simple autocue. This allowed him to practice reading a script as part of his rehabilitation, and helped him return to his namesake show. He has a long-standing affiliation with the Labour Party

Andrew Neil was educated at Glasgow University where he became chairman for the federation of Conservative Students. He host’s and co-hosts politics show on the BBC, which are: Daily Politics, Sunday Politics and This Week. The Daily and Sunday Politics shows are broken into segments such as the paper review and a feature interview. This Week is an informal current affair show with two panellists, special guests and features. This is aired late at night allowing a less formal feel. The one constant through all three shows is Andrew Neil’s forthright style. Of all the BBC journalists, he has the most air-time at five hours per week. Prior to working on TV he worked in print at The Telegraph and The Spectator.

The two men behind the shows both share a deep passion for politics, and are both able to put aside personal beliefs during interviews. This allows a fair and balanced insight into the subject.

In an article published by The Guardian in July 2015 titled: ‘The BBC is Full of Political Bias – But Doesn’t Affect its Output’ the article considers political affiliations of the BBC’s top journalists and their impartiality.

It noted that Andrew Marr and Paul Mason in their younger days had ‘flirtations’ with Trotskyist groups which are far right communist’s.

Andrew Neil was mentioned as the political journalist who receives most air time at five hours a week. It acknowledged how he was a researcher for the Conservative Party and chairman of Spectator magazine, which is well known as a Conservative publication.

The writer Ivor Gaber wrote: “The current notion that there is obvious bias at the BBC – weather it be of the left or the right – that can be “investigated” and presumably purged, is troubling.” (gaber, 2015) highlighted where required.

The BBC like with any other media organisation spends a considerable sum on set design. Close attention is paid to the way in which the journalists/presenters position themselves and guests when interviewing.

Andrew Marr: The chairs are positioned at a five to the hour and five past the hour. There is nothing in-between them to create a barrier, tables for water are placed on the outer sides of the chairs. By allowing the middle space to be open there is a feeling of relaxed even standing between the two.

During the interview’s, Andrew Marr usually sits back in his chair with both hands wresting on his lap. This is a non-confrontational, relaxed stance, allowing the interviewee to feel unthreatened.

There are moments within interviews, usually when an interviewee is not answering or defecting answers when Marr will lean in or raise his hand in gesture to apply pressure for an and answer or justification. Once the desired outcome has been reached, the stance reverts to the resting position.

The way in which Marr facilitates his interviewees is similar to that of a counsellor and their client.

“Posture: Your posture needs to be open…to signal that you are receptive and willing to engage with your client.

Eye contact: use eye contact to demonstrate interest in them

Facial expression: be aware of the information that your facial expression might say

Seating: positioning yourself at a slight angle, rather than opposite, appears less confrontational. (Bond, 2011)

Andrew Neil: The chairs are positioned at opposite sides of a table. This creates a barrier and more formal feel to interviews. There are usually papers placed on the desk in-front of Andrew Neil which, even if not used gives allows the viewer to see without question who is in charge and in control of things.

The table allows Neil a platform on to rest. He frequently leans into the table giving a direct almost forceful stance against the interviewee. When trying to press a point, he will point or gesture to the guest, this is not done with a softer free arm, instead the motion is direct with the elbow firmly planted on the table top.

The image on the lest is the Andrew Marr Show, the image on the left Sunday Politics fronted by Andrew Neil.


Capture 3

The goal for both journalists is to hold the politicians to account, to question their party and personal agendas.

In a world of twenty-four-hour news, and scrutiny from social media, it is more important than ever for this kind of broadcast.

Andrew Marr to Jeremy Corbyn:

The opening sequence to this interview included an overview of the kind of questions which would be asked. Mr Corbyn was told there would be questions regarding home policy, however he would begin with foreign policy. This is quite a gentle softer approach and interviewing style.


His body language was relaxed whilst asking the question.

The question was regarding what instruction Mr Corbyn would put into a letter to the Captains of the nuclear submarines. Mr Corbyn avoided the question stating a desire for a nuclear free world. The question was repeated in a calm but firm manor, once again a straight answer was avoided but went on to speak about world peace.

Andrew Marr uses hand gestures throughout the interview, these gestures are not intimidating or menacing they are more expressive.

Throughout the interview, Andrew Marr’s tone remained calm, controlled, and polite. This encouraged Mr Corbyn to give an authentic personal answer.

This interview caused confusion from the general public and across the political spectrum due to Mr Corbyn giving his personal stance on the use of nuclear weapons and not that of the Labour Party who support it. (Stewart, 2017)

Jeremy Corbyn’s beliefs are long established and can be traced to him joining the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) as a schoolboy in 1966. (Wheeler, 2016)

Neil in contrast to Marr has a very direct interviewing style.

In an interview with Conservative Party chairman Patrick McLoughlin regarding the delay of the enquiry into High Speed 2 (HS2 as it is more commonly known), due to key evidence being left on a memory stick.

The tone of Neil’s voice was very direct and said with intent, this would indicate the severity of the question being asked. During the questioning, there was what could be described as a laughing tone, this could be viewed as a laugh of disbelief or one of derision.

Hand gestures were used which matched the tonality in the voice, they appeared purposeful and re-enforced what was being said.  This almost forceful style leaves the listener with no doubt of who is in charge.

In its simplest form an interview is a conversation between two people, the interviewer and interviewee.

Of the three main communication theories, the one most relevant to this special environment is Schramm’s model.

The communication is between two people, but structured rather than free flowing.

The model explains the way in which each person is both the encoder and the decoder within the transaction.

The response to the question asked by Andrew Marr to Jeremy Corbyn an element of Schramm’s model of communication is clear to see. The Field of Experience are factors which influence both the way we encode and decode messages.

“The Field of Experience are the things that influence the understanding and interpretation of messages like culture, social background beliefs, experiences, values and rules.” (Anon., n.d.)

This applies to both the interviewer and interviewee.

The process of interviewing a guest is something which, to perfect takes years of practice, the BBC academy offers a complete chapter on the process of interviewing and how to make the most out of an interview.

The use of open questions allows the interviewees to open up and give comprehensive answers. Both Marr and Neil have this down to a fine art.

For most kinds of guests this works extremely well, however, politicians are professionals at evading questions and giving the illusion they heard a different question to what was asked. On occasion, there is a necessity to ask a closed question, usually when pressing for a definitive answer.

This was demonstrated in Marrs interview with Jeremy Corbyn over giving the order for a nuclear strike, he avoided and skated round the answer to the point he was asked “would you give the order yes or no?” A clear answer still was not given. At this point he moved to the next subject.

The way in which questions are asked can be divisive.

Both Marr and Neil have featured in newspaper articles regarding their personal style of questioning.

In an interview with the Press Association on 7th February 2017 Marr spoke about how his interviewing style was the key to getting a good story. This was the response to a question about his softer style in relation to some of his peers including Andrew Neil. Mr Marr said they:

“Don’t really understand the nature of interviewing and how it works”

He followed with:

“I would say look at the amount of stories that come out of my show, it’s vastly more than anyone else’s”

Neil recently appeared in The Sun under the headline:

“’Drop the Democrat!’ Nick Clegg gets ripped to shreds by Andrew Neil on the Liberal Democrats’ hypocritical position on Brexit” (clark, 2016)

During the interview Neil told Mr Clegg that due to the Liberal Democrats stance on Brexit they should consider re-branding and dropping the ‘Democrat’.

This is not the first time a headline has implied Neil is not someone to take lightly.

When searching for articles relation to Neil, and observation was made.

Capture 7

In most of the headlines in the image above relating to Neil there is a theme, the use of powerful thought provoking words or phrases.

When seeing the word ‘schooled’ the denotation of this could be that Katie Hopkins is learning something from Neil, in the way a student would learn from a teacher. The connotation of this however implies something different, ‘totally schooled’ implies she has been taught a lesson in a similar way to a parent disciplining their child.



After watching and reading about both well respected journalists, it has become apparent that whilst contrasting in style, their aim is the same. Both hold to account and question the top political representatives in the country.

Andrew Marr is polite and softly spoken, whilst in contrast Andrew Neil is more assertive in manor, both take no prisoners.

They are both able to put personal feelings and beliefs aside irrespective of the person in-front of them.

Referring to the article regarding bias in the BBC, the two interviews mentioned demonstrate how this, at least with the two journalists in this comparison is not the case. The two interviewees were man belonging the parties to which both are associated.

There is no clear right or wrong way in terms of which works best. Both gentlemen work in a style which suites them and their personality.

Word count 2039

Works Cited

Anon., n.d. businesstopia.net. [Online]

Available at: http://www.businesstopia.net/communication/schramms-model-communication

[Accessed 28th April 2017].

Bond, S. C. a. T., 2011. Integrative Counselling Skills in Action. 3rd ed. london: sage.

clark, n., 2016. The Sun. [Online]

Available at: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2325251/nick-clegg-gets-ripped-to-shreds-by-andrew-neil-on-the-liberal-democrats-position-on-brexit/

[Accessed 01 may 2017].

gaber, i., 2015. the guardian. [Online]

Available at: /www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jul/14/bbc-political-bias-news-nick-robinson

[Accessed 9 May 2017].

Stewart, J. E. a. H., 2017. The Guardian. [Online]

Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/apr/23/jeremy-corbyn-casts-doubt-labour-support-trident-nuclear-deterrent-manifesto

[Accessed 17 May 2017].

Wheeler, b., 2016. BBC.co.uk. [Online]

Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-34184265

[Accessed 17 may 2017].


Anon., n.d. businesstopia.net. [Online]

Available at: http://www.businesstopia.net/communication/schramms-model-communication

[Accessed 28th April 2017].

Bond, S. C. a. T., 2011. Integrative Counselling Skills in Action. 3rd ed. london: sage.

clark, n., 2016. The Sun. [Online]

Available at: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2325251/nick-clegg-gets-ripped-to-shreds-by-andrew-neil-on-the-liberal-democrats-position-on-brexit/

[Accessed 01 may 2017].

Corbyn, J., 2017. The Andrew Marr Show [Interview] (23 April 2017).

gaber, i., 2015. the guardian. [Online]

Available at: /www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jul/14/bbc-political-bias-news-nick-robinson

[Accessed 9 May 2017].

McLoughlin, P., 2017. Sunday Politics [Interview] (23 April 2017).

Stewart, J. E. a. H., 2017. The Guardian. [Online]

Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/apr/23/jeremy-corbyn-casts-doubt-labour-support-trident-nuclear-deterrent-manifesto

[Accessed 17 May 2017].

Wheeler, b., 2016. BBC.co.uk. [Online]

Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-34184265

[Accessed 17 may 2017].




















Is Print Dead, and the Future of Journalism Purely Online

Access to digital platforms is becoming easier via mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets, computers and laptops, games consoles, smart tv’s and even watches.

The notion is that you can receive news updates as they happen more inline with today’s fast moving society. There is an expectation that everything we need it at the touch of a button.

The rise of Hyper-local journalism is moving from strength to strength. It is local news at your finger tips.

hyper local map

Locations of Hyperlocal News Outlets


This map shows all hyper-local websites registered with communityjournalism.co.uk

What this proves is that a small self funding media outlet can step up to the table and, providing it has a solid and viable strategy utilising tools such as social media, and search engine optimisation can compete with the big boys.

Online media allows the reader to take charge of what they read in a way general print news papers are unable. Tabs or pre-sets allow the reader to go straight to the kind of stories of interest.

In contrast there is something about holding a physical newspaper or magazine that you don’t get with a digital copy.

the feel of paper, the smell of the ink…paper can change colour with the heat or put in front of a light, an add can feel rough as sand or smooth as silk, all adding to the sensory experience” http://www.printpower.eu/Why-Print-Media

A printed news publication is not effected by the internet. To receive digital content there must be a connection made. This could be via cable, wi-fi or mobile data. How may times have you sat on a train reading and article and it goes off because you are in a tunnel or the middle of the countryside with no coverage? In a built up city centre and no coverage or not enough to power the multi-media element or video that is so vital. With print this is never an issue. It is always there, always readable.

I feel that there is a place for both, and though print figures are in decline there will always be a need for the physical newspaper.












Andrew Marr and Andrew Neil Comparison Essay Reflection

When given this assignment, for me it was a relativity easy choice for who to choose. I had worked on a previous piece relating to Andrew Marr and found him fascinating.

There is something about the way throughout his interviews he remains so polite and calm that, without realising it you are clued to the TV screen.#

I needed someone as a second subject who would contrast Marr’s polite gentlemanly style.

Andrew Neil was again an easy choice, I love his ‘This Week’ programme and the fact he takes no prisoners. He is hard hitting and to the point.

For the sake of this assignment I chose to use Andrew Neil’s day time show Sunday Politics. This would allow the direct comparison of two like for like  shows.

As a TV show is not just about the words which the broadcaster says, but a well orchestrated collaboration. What you see is almost as important as what you hear, it is the first impression as the credits roll. What does the first frame, before anything is said tell you? This frame is usually including the shows banner or logo.

Other thing I felt were important included to way in which the seating was arranged and the reasons for it.

When I began to look into the broadcasters and the things which had brought them to this point, on a basic level they were very similar. Both Scottish political journalists who began their career’s in print before moving into broadcasting.

The more i understood about them as people, the more i began to understand possible reasons for choices made regarding their respective shows.

I felt it was important to use examples of characteristics and have them backed up with the knowledge of theory. A example of this would be Jeremy Corbyn  is interview with Andrew Marr. He was asked a question relating to the nuclear submarines, instead of giving an answer of the position shared by his party, the answer he gave was lead by his personal stance. Communication Theory helped explain why.

On the whole I am pleased with the result. I feel there has been an improvement in my writing over the year and that it shows in this work.




Influential Journalist – Andrew Marr

Andrew William Stevenson Marr was born on 31st July 1959.

Educated at Trinity Hall Cambridge, the journalist and broadcaster has established a well respected career specialising in anything political.

He began working for The Scotsman as a junior business reporter, before moving to London where he became a parliamentary correspondent, then becoming their political correspondent.

Thanks to political journalist and mentor Anthony Bevins Andrew Marr was appointed as a member of the Independents launch team. After leaving for a short time he returned in 1992 as political editor and  in 1996 became editor.

His first work for television was a three part series for BBC 2 to be shown after Newsnight.

In 2000 he became BBC political editor one of his most renowned interviews was with Tony Blair when he announced he would not seek a fourth term as Prime Minister should they win the 2005 general election. After the election he stepped down as political editor to spend more time with his family. He did continue to work for the BBC.

In September of 2005 Marr began presenting Sunday morning news programme Sunday AM. Which in 2007 would be re-branded as Andrew Marr show.

In January of 2013 Marr suffered a stroke which left him in hospital for 2 months. He returned to his show in September of the same year.

He received some treatment in Florida which involved injecting drugs directly into his spine whilst handing upside down. He was quoted in December 2016  as saying that even though there had not been the dramatic results he had hoped for there had been ‘subtle and useful changes’.

He remains partially paralysed on his left side, this limits some activities he is able to do.

The thing that I admire most about Marr as a journalist is the way he is fearless in what he does.

In his show he never shy’s away form the hard and sometimes controversial questions which need asking. He also push’s for answers not excepting single word reply’s or in  the case of Teresa May avoidance and skating round issues.

As a person I admire how even after such a big health scare he returned to the show in less than a year and is even better.

He has forged such a strong presence in both print and broadcast journalism is a field which is filled with ego’s,  mud slinging and tit for tat.






Print magazines are something we take for granted. They cover all subjects and all ages. There are ladies and men’s glossy mags filled with celebrity gossip, fashion and fitness. There are children’s mags and magazines for pretty much every hobby and interest out there.

Some of the most respected publications are essentially magazines:

  • The Economist
  • British Medical Journal
  • Esquire
  • The New Yorker

Establishing the difference between Circulation and Readership is important.

Circulation : The amount of copies of the publication are distributed

Readers: The estimated amount of people who read the publication

It is no real shock that print magazines are largely in decline, it is something that has been happening steadily for over a decade, but it’s not the case for all publications.

Woman’s Mag’s

It was my initial though the decline in print publication would be due to a sudden rise in the online readership. This has been proven not to be the case.

The Press Gazette has produced an interesting table which clearly shows average circulation, digital edition, % down.

This is a brief over view of 4 publications: the figures are all from 2015

  • Best selling title – Take a Break

Average Circulation: 589,495

Down: 9%

Digital: No digital copies

  • Worst selling Title – Reveal

Average Circulation: 122,986

Down: 24%

Digital: 796

  • Best performing title -The Lady

Average Circulation: 27,484

Down: 4%

Digital: 675

  • Best digital title: OK!

Average Circulation: 275,765

Down: 6%

Digital: 5506

In figures taken from Campaign for the first half of 2016 the highest selling non TV publication was Slimming World with an increased circulation of 2%.

Lifestyle publications such as Good House going for strength to strength. Circulation increased  by 9% to 370,506

In contrast some current affair publications have grown.

  • The Spectator excluding Australia 

Average Circulation 71,707

Up: 31%

Digital: 15,335

Private Eye circulation is at it’s highest circulation since 1986 with a rise of 5% to 229,777. This magazine has no digital edition.


While there is no question that some styles of publication are in decline, to say this is the case in all publications, some are thriving.



CATS-Notes for 2/2/17

Today was the first day of the new semester.

The first subject discussed was the assignment of a 2000 word essay to be followed by a presentation.

The assignment must:

  • compare the work of two journalists/photojournalists/documentary makers
  • compare specific pieces of work, how they achieved them.
  • compare the people, their ethics,  motivations and principles
  • the essay should be heavy in analysis and comparisons
  • should include the sociopolitical impact of the two
  • any research should be on blog
  • the presentation will last 5 to 10 mins and count for 20% of the mark. 7


Other assessed work:

  • Package of industry reflections
  • specific reflections set during classes
  • notes from sessions


during the second half of the lesson we listened to each class member speak about the two photo journalists chosen from the selection given by John